Piriformis syndrome is a relatively rare condition, but may be misdiagnosed since symptoms of the condition mimic those of sciatica.  The piriformis muscle lies deep in the buttock passing over the sciatic nerve as the sciatic nerve descends down the leg. When shortening of the piriformis muscle has occurred due to injury or congenitally, it may impinge on the sciatic nerve and produce symptoms referring down the back of the leg which can be confused with sciatica.  The patient may complain of pain when sitting, climbing stairs or squatting.

Treatment of the condition, once identified as the source of the symptoms includes, deep tissue massage and stretching of the external rotators of the hip.